Download EBOOK On Hummingbird Tail Morphology as Shaped by the Interactions Between Flight-Related Functions PDF for free


Download EBOOK On Hummingbird Tail Morphology as Shaped by the Interactions Between Flight-Related Functions PDF for free Category: Science & Geography
The author of the book: Christopher James Clark
Format files: PDF, EPUB, TXT, DOCX
The size of the: 266 KB
Language: English
ISBN-13: 9781243663658
Edition: Proquest, Umi Dissertation Publishing
Date of issue: 1 September 2011

Description of the book "On Hummingbird Tail Morphology as Shaped by the Interactions Between Flight-Related Functions":

Bird tails are a typical example of a multifunctional trait. Although most birds use their tails to produce aerodynamic forces during flight, the tail has numerous other functions, including as a sexually selected ornament. Because the evolution of morphology for one function necessarily detracts from other possible functions, tails modified for non-aerodynamic functions are expected to impose aerodynamic costs to the birds bearing them. Hummingbirds (family Trochilidae), which are entirely reliant on flight for locomotion, are thought to possess among the greatest diversity of tail morphology of any group of birds. Because this diversity suggests that some species PDF may bear substantial costs from having modified tail morphologies, I studied the morphological and functional consequences of diverse tail morphologies in hummingbirds. In Chapter One, I show that tail morphologies of hummingbird are among the most diverse in any clade of birds, with elongated tails evolving at least 26 times, and generally falling along a forked-graduated continuum of shape. Like wing length, tail length scales as mass0.5, meaning large hummingbirds all have disproportionately long tails, and small hummingbirds evolve sexually dimorphic and/or elongated tails more frequently than do large hummingbirds. These patterns suggest that large hummingbirds are more constrained in ePub their ability to evolve elaborate or derived tail morphologies than are small hummingbirds. In Chapter Two, I measured this constraint by examining the costs of an extremely long tail to forward flight in a wind tunnel. An elongated tail increased the total drag on the bird's body, causing an increase in metabolic rate by up to 10% and a decrease in top speed of 3.4%. Compared to other life history stages, these costs appear to be small. Another pattern uncovered in chapter one includes subtle aspects of the tail morphology present in males of the 'Bee' hummingbird clade PDF. In Chapter Three, I demonstrate that the narrowed, outer tail-feathers of the Anna's Hummingbird function to generate a loud sound during a courtship dive. Finally, in Chapter Four, I examine the effects of tail length on the Red-billed Streamertail's ability to perform a low-speed maneuver. A greatly elongated tail does not affect the streamertail's abilities to turn, whereas the presence of a short tail is necessary for birds to perform a maneuver with the highest linear accelerations. In combination with the results of Chapter two, this research suggests that tails elongated tails impose ePub subtle costs on flight. In summary, hummingbirds are characterized by extremely diverse tail morphologies. Elongated tails have repeatedly evolved and appear to increase a bird's drag, but not impair maneuverability. Multiple species in the Bee clade have also evolved to generate loud sounds with their tail during courtship displays. In total, this research demonstrates the dynamic interactions that can occur between naturally-selected and sexually-selected functions.

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Christopher James Clark

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Download EBOOK On Hummingbird Tail Morphology as Shaped by the Interactions Between Flight-Related Functions PDF for free



Download EBOOK On Hummingbird Tail Morphology as Shaped by the Interactions Between Flight-Related Functions for free

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