Category: Society & Social Sciences|
The author of the book: R. Allen Gardner
Format files: PDF, EPUB, TXT, DOCX
The size of the: 4.52 MB
Date of issue: 20 October 2012
Description of the book "The Ethological Roots of Culture":Can the concept of culture be applied validly to another species? This paper first reports (as a case study) a kind of grooming shown by wild chimpanzees which seems to be a truly social custom. The example serves to introduce the practical pitfalls and potentials of seeking to answer the question posed. Next, the paper focuses on a type of tool-use, hammer-and-anvil, which varies across populations and has important archaeological implications. Broadening further, an exhaustive catalogue of habitual tool-use across all known field-studies is presented. Finally, the evidence of regional and local patterns of tool- use PDF by wild chimpanzees is assessed. The paper then turns to mechanisms of cultural processes, especially innovation, before ending with responses to recent criticisms by the "anti-culturalists". If concepts such as culture are to help us understand the behavior of our nearest relations, we must avoid simplistic and sloppy extrapolation. Two long-term field studies of wild chimpanzees have proceeded in parallel in western Tanzania, and most of the published knowledge of the natural behavior of individual chimpanzees comes from these. Goodall's (1986) research group in the Gombe National Park has focussed on the Kasakela community of chimpanzees. The project ePub begun by the African Primate Expedition at Kasoje in the Mahale Mountains, initially under the direction of Itani and later of Nishida (1968, 1990), focussed first on K Group, then later on M Group.
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